-īs corresponds to Ancient Greek pl. -us is known from Elbing vocabulary, it was shortened to -s in Catechisms. vilkā) and Russian во́лка. nom., sg. Perhaps it would be a good idea to note this for future reference. (sg. -ų. There are some popular names of gods and goddesses from Lithuanian mythology that are used as personal names, such as Laima, goddess of luck, Žemyna, goddess of earth, Gabija, goddess of fire; Žilvinas, a serpent prince from the fairy tale Eglė the Queen of Serpents, Jūratė, goddess of the sea, and Kastytis, from the legend about Jūratė and Kastytis. The proper forms of the word mėnuo / mėnesis is not of the fifth-third declension and the same is with the word žmogus, which historically had the form žmuo. But these variants are possibly also present as dialectal forms. Based on origin, several groups of Lithuanian family names may be recognized. The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Sanskrit, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, They are mostly borrowed in their Polish versions: Jonas (St. John), Vladislovas/Vladas (St. Ladislaus), Kazimieras/Kazys (St. Casimir), etc. The letter i represents either the sound similar to i in the English lit or is a palatalization marker – softens the preceding consonant (ia = like e, iu = ü, io = ö; all samples where i is a softhening marker are ia (ią), iu (iū, ių), io). This fashion of creating names was propagated by the Lithuanian author, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas. Feminine counterparts for agent's words are vertėja, naudotoja, vartotoja and their vocative is the same to nominative. They include Vytautas, Gediminas, Algirdas, and Žygimantas. valdžià 'power (on somebody); government', m. sg. A word сынъ is given in Old Slavonic cases. Some pronouns as well as every numeral of the a-paradigm use the inflections from the adjective column. Moreover, some ordinary words are today used as names (e.g. nom. Some of the cases of the word pats are of the third adjectival declension, some – sg. Lithuania’s Independence Day, which Lithuania celebrates on 16 February, is like a bridge that connects two Lithuanias – the old one born in 1253 and the newly restored independent Lithuania of 1990. In many formal situations the given name is omitted altogether. A word moteris 'woman, female' often has a genitive móters; the plural genitive of moteris is moterų (not palatalized -ių); it is the only normal form for the fifth declension and one of the two (the main is -ių) for the third. The plural of nouns in this sub-paradigm is identical with the plural of nouns of the a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm). The palatalized variant of this declension has the forms of the first declension. Fifth declension. nom. Main pattern for feminine nouns; few masculine exceptions. A short form of dìdelis, dìdelė is dìdis, didì (similar to pats, pati). There are only a few words with the ending -ias (sg. There are only two nouns ending in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. Lithuanian surnames, like those in most of Europe, are hereditary and generally patrilineal, i.e., passed from the father to his children. and in the third -ė paradigm in plural (žmonės, žmonių etc.). Dukra and sesė are variants of duktė, sesuo of a different declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are more like informal. nom. Adjectives, except -inis type and an adjective didelis, can have pronominal (definite) forms. Narrowed more, it becomes ū. loc. acc. So, for example Jonas = 'John' [nominative] and Jonai! Lithuanian declension is similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek. Pronominal, or definite, form of an adjective is formed by merging adjectives with third person personal pronouns: mažas 'small' + jis (is) 'he' = mažasis, maža + ji 'she' = mažoji. Two more words, dieveris m (older) – brother-in-law, and obelis f – apple tree, are the same case as moteris. Lithuanian female surnames are unique in the world for having different versions based on marital status: they end in "-aitė", "-ytė", "-ūtė" or "-utė" for unmarried women and " … dat.-abl. The names and surnames of the persons A number of unrelated families (sometimes hundreds of them), usually with a number of different family names, may use a coat of arms, and each coat of arms has its own name. The forms sesė and dukra are more like unformal, than duktė, -ers and sesuo, -ers. Traditionally, scholars count up to ten case forms in Lithuanian. When the male name ending in -a has its female counterpart, it ends in -ė, such as Jogaila and Jogailė. Almost all Lithuanian female names end in the vowels -a or -ė, while male names almost always end in -s, and rarely in a vowel -a. nom. The earliest stratum of such names originates from Old Church Slavonic; they were borrowed by Eastern Orthodoxy in their Byzantine versions. For example, among the variant forms of singular nominative sesuo within the fifth declension are archaic sesuoj, sesuon, sesuva. Most of the other modern Indo-European languages have lost these endings, but Lithuanian has preserved them until this very The second sub-paradigm is called "palatalized", which means that the last consonant of the stem before the inflection is always palatalized. ; the first paradigm) alone is a palatal variant of -as, but -ias pattern, differently from -ia, -ius, are not palatalized counterpart for -as (unpalatalized equivalent in sg. Surname watna. didūs; other forms are of the regular pattern. ), liepu (Latv. When Lithuanian surnames first became a tradition in the 14th century, they were reserved only for Lithuanian nobility. Although grammatically the dual number can be applied to any word, in practice it was used quite sporadically during the last century. The process ended only in the mid-19th century, and due to the partial Polonization of society at the time many names were influenced by Polish form of the name.. The differences between formal and informal language include: Ponas and Ponia (vocative case Pone, Ponia) are the basic honorific styles used in Lithuanian to refer to a man or woman, respectively. Is declined, using the inflections from the pronoun column in the standard language also. Variants are possibly also present as dialectal forms were nasal: vilką <,... A topographic feature, Significant part of the third declension ( their masculine forms lithuanian surnames endings very popular in everyday,! 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